Nosebleeds, also known as epistaxis, are a common complaint that can occur spontaneously. Nosebleeds can occur when the inner lining of a person's nose is injured or dry. Injury to the small blood vessels in the nose then trigger nosebleeds. Almost all nosebleeds originate in the middle tissue that separates the two nostrils. Nosebleeds are more common in patients with nasal allergies, sinusitis, hypertension, or bleeding disorders. If you understand the cause of your nosebleed and know how to treat it, you can better manage your nosebleed.
Method 1 of 3: First Aid During Nosebleeds
Step 1. Adjust your body position
If you don't have a serious medical problem that can cause a nosebleed, you can provide first aid for a nosebleed to help stop it. To begin with, sit down, because this position is more comfortable than standing. Bend your head forward so that the blood comes out through the nostrils.
- Place a towel under your nose to collect the blood that comes out.
- Do not lie down as this can cause blood to flow down the throat.
Step 2. Press the nose
With your index finger and thumb, press the top of your nose, so that your nostrils are completely covered. Pressing the nose at this point will put pressure on the damaged blood vessels directly, which will be more effective as it will help stop the blood flow. Keep pressing your nose for 10 minutes, then release.
- If your nose is still bleeding, press again for another 10 minutes.
- While you press your nose, breathe in through your mouth.
Step 3. Cool down your body
Lowering your body temperature can reduce blood flow to your nose. To lower body temperature, put ice cubes in your mouth. That way, your body temperature will drop faster than cooling the outside of your nose. This will also help you maintain a cooler temperature longer.
- This method is more effective than putting a cold compress over the nose. Based on recent clinical research, cold compresses placed over the nose are not very effective.
- You can also suck on a popsicle to get the same result.
Step 4. Use the oxymetazoline nasal spray
Even if you don't get nosebleeds often, you can try a nasal spray if you don't have high blood pressure. This medicine can cause narrowing of the blood vessels in your nose. To use it, prepare a small cotton ball or gauze, give 1-2 drops of the medicine, put it in your nose, press your nose, and check your nosebleed again after 10 minutes.
- If the nosebleed has stopped, do not remove the cotton swab or gauze for about 1 hour, as the nosebleed may recur.
- The use of this drug repeatedly, more than 3-4 times a day can cause addiction and nasal congestion.
- Use this spray only if your nosebleed doesn't stop after pressing it for 10 minutes.
Step 5. Clear your nose and rest
After the nosebleed stops, you can clean the area around your nose with warm water. After cleansing your face, you should rest for a while. This is necessary to prevent nosebleeds from continuing.
You can lie down while resting
Method 2 of 3: Preventing Nosebleeds Again
Step 1. Treat your nose gently
Since nosebleeds can be caused by yourself, there are several preventative measures that will help you prevent future nosebleeds. You should avoid picking your nostrils. Picking the nostrils can cause injury to the sensitive blood vessels inside the nose. You should also open your mouth when you sneeze to prevent airflow from escaping through your nose.
- You should keep the lining of your nose moist by applying petroleum jelly or nasal gel into your nose using a small cotton ball twice a day.
- Always blow your nose gently, and alternate blowing one at a time.
- You should trim children's nails to prevent hurting their noses.
Step 2. Buy a humidifier
To increase the humidity in your environment, we recommend that you purchase a humidifier. You can use a humidifier both at home and at work to prevent the air from getting too dry, especially in winter.
If you don't have a humidifier, you can place a metal container filled with water in the heater to humidify the air
Step 3. Increase your fiber intake
Constipation can cause you to strain to pass hard stools, resulting in nosebleeds due to constricted blood vessels. The tension in the blood vessels can cause an increase in arterial pressure for a while and cause the blood that had clotted and closed the previous wound to be released, eventually nosebleeds occur again. Constipation can be prevented by eating foods rich in fiber and increasing your fluid intake.
Step 4. Eat fiber so that the stool you excrete is soft
Do not strain during bowel movements, as this will increase intracerebral arterial pressure, thereby increasing the chance of rupture of the sensitive blood vessels in the nose.
- Eating 6 to 12 prunes a day is known to be more effective than a fiber diet, and can be used to prevent constipation.
- You should also avoid spicy and hot foods. Heat can cause your blood vessels to dilate and accelerate nosebleeds.
Step 5. Use a saline nasal spray
A saline nasal spray can be used several times each day to keep your nose moist. This nasal spray is non-addictive as it only contains salt. If you don't want to buy one, you can make your own.
To make your own, prepare a clean container. Mix 3 full teaspoons of iodine-free salt and 1 teaspoon of baking soda. Mix these two powders together. Then, take 1 teaspoon of powdered mixture of the two, and put it in 240 ml of lukewarm distilled water or boiling water. Stir well
Step 6. Eat more flavonoids
Flavonoids, which are a class of natural chemical compounds in oranges, can repair vulnerable blood vessels. Therefore, you should consider increasing your intake of citrus fruits. Other foods rich in flavonoids are parsley, onions, blueberries, other berries, black tea, green and oolong teas, bananas, and all kinds of citrus fruits, Ginkgo biloba, red grapes, sea buckthorns, and dark chocolate (with high content of flavonoids). cocoa 70% or more).
You should not use flavonoid supplements, such as ginkgo pills, quercetin tablets, grape seed extract, and flaxseed, because they can cause flavonoid levels to be too high and ultimately poisoning
Method 3 of 3: Understanding Nosebleeds
Step 1. Know the types of nosebleeds
The type of nosebleed is determined by which part of the nose is bleeding. In anterior nosebleeds, blood comes out from the front of the nose. You can also experience posterior nosebleeds, which come from the inside of the nose. Nosebleeds can also occur spontaneously for no known reason.
Step 2. Find out the cause
There are many causes of nosebleeds. When you have a nosebleed, you should be able to identify the possible cause so you can avoid it in the future if possible. You can get a nosebleed from injuring yourself, mostly from picking your nostrils. This is a common cause in children. Other causes include drug abuse such as cocaine, blood vessel disorders, blood clotting disorders, and injuries to the head or face.
- Environmental factors such as low humidity, a common cause in winter, can trigger irritation of the nasal mucosa and nosebleeds. The incidence of nosebleeds increases in colder weather.
- Nasal and sinus infections can cause nosebleeds. Allergies can also cause inflammation of the mucous lining, resulting in nosebleeds.
- In certain cases, migraines in children are also thought to be the cause of nosebleeds.
- Injuries to the face can also cause nosebleeds.
Step 3. Avoid certain situations
If you have a nosebleed, you should avoid certain situations or activities that could make it worse. Don't lie on your back. Because this can cause blood to flow down your throat, triggering vomiting. You should also avoid coughing and talking, as they can irritate the mucous lining of the nose and cause nosebleeds to return.
- If you have to sneeze during a nosebleed, you should try to exhale through your mouth so it doesn't aggravate the sore or nosebleed.
- Do not blow or pick your nose, especially if the nosebleed has stopped. You can cause the clotted blood to come off and the nosebleed to recur.
Step 4. Visit a doctor
There are certain situations that require you to see a doctor. If your nosebleed is quite heavy, more than a few drops, lasts more than 30 minutes, and occurs repeatedly, you should see a doctor. You should also seek medical attention if you become pale, tired, or disoriented.
- If you have trouble breathing, especially if blood is flowing down your throat, you should see a doctor. This can trigger irritation and coughing. So the possibility of infection, which in turn causes difficulty breathing.
- You should always see a doctor if a nosebleed is the result of a serious injury to the nose.
- You should also see your doctor if you experience a nosebleed while taking anti-clotting medicines such as warfarin, clopidogrel, or daily aspirin.
- Avoid smoking when you have a nosebleed. Cigarette smoke can cause irritation and dry out the nose.
- Do not use antiseptic creams, because many people are sensitive to this kind of cream, and it can make inflammation of the nose worse. Only use bacitracin ointment if prescribed by your doctor to treat crusting due to infection.
- Stay calm, no matter how bad your nosebleed is. Calmness will help you not to panic or faint.
- Remember to humidify the air, eat healthy, and keep your hands away from your nose!
- Don't panic when you see a lot of blood, because it looks like it could be more than the actual amount. Most of it is just another fluid in your nose. There are a lot of blood vessels inside our nose!