A fracture, or fracture, is a serious traumatic injury that requires medical attention. However, getting first aid from a trained medical practitioner is not always possible-some situations can delay medical attention for hours or days. Even in developed countries, people experience two fractures in their lifetime, so this is not a rare occurrence. Thus, knowing how to provide first aid for fractures for yourself, your family, and others who are in an emergency is important.
Part 1 of 2: Providing Initial Assistance
Step 1. Pay attention to the injured area
In an emergency situation, without a trained medical practitioner, you should be able to estimate the severity of the injury quickly. Trauma from a fall or accident accompanied by severe pain is not necessarily a fracture, but is usually a pretty good indicator. Fractures of the head, spine, or pelvis are difficult to identify without an X-ray, but if you suspect a fracture in any of these areas, you should not try to move the person. Bones in the arms, legs, fingers, and toes may appear bent, deformed, or out of position when broken. Severe fractures can penetrate the skin surface (open fracture) and be accompanied by heavy bleeding.
- Other symptoms of a fracture include: limited use of the injured area (reduced mobility or weight is unable to support the area), sudden local swelling and bruising, numbness or tingling from the broken bone, shortness of breath, and nausea.
- Be careful when examining the injury so as not to cause too much movement. Moving someone with a spinal, neck, pelvic, or skull injury without medical exercise is very risky and should be avoided.
Step 2. Call the emergency room if the injury is severe
If you have confirmed that the injury is serious and suspect a fracture is possible, call 118 to call an ambulance and ask for medical help to arrive as soon as possible. Providing basic first aid and care can be helpful, but it is not a substitute for trained medical help. If you are near a hospital or emergency clinic and are reasonably sure the injury is not life threatening and only affects one limb, consider taking the injured person there.
- Even if you think the fracture isn't life-threatening, resist the urge to drive yourself to the hospital. You may not be able to drive a car properly or lose consciousness due to the pain, which can be a hazard on the road.
- If the injury is severe enough, stay in touch with the emergency caller just in case his condition gets worse so he can get instructions and helpful emotional support.
- Call the emergency department if you notice any of the following: seek emergency assistance if the person is unresponsive, not breathing, or is not moving; there is heavy bleeding; gentle pressure or movement causes pain; limbs or joints appear altered; bone penetrates the skin; very severe conditions in the injured arm or leg, such as numbness of the toes or fingers or bruising at the tips; You suspect a broken bone in the neck, head, or back.
Step 3. Give rescue breaths if necessary
If the injured person is not breathing and you can't feel a pulse in his wrist or neck, start cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) -- if you know how -- before the ambulance arrives. CPR assistance includes opening the airway, blowing air to the mouth/lungs, and trying to get the heart to beat again by pressing the chest rhythmically.
- Lack of oxygen for more than 5-7 minutes can at least cause brain damage, so help must be given immediately.
- If you are untrained, give hand-only CPR without mouth, which is continuous chest compressions of about 100 pressures per minute until paramedics arrive.
- If you are trained to provide assisted CPR, begin with immediate chest compressions (about 20-30 pressures per minute), check for airway obstruction, and begin providing rescue breathing after tilting the patient's head back.
- For spinal, neck, or skull injuries, do not use tilting the head and raising the chin. Use a jaw thrust to open the airway, but only if you are trained to do so. The way to push the jaw is to kneel behind the person and place your hands on the sides of his face, middle and index fingers under and behind the jaw. Push each side of the jaw forward and forward.
Step 4. Stop the bleeding that occurs
If the injury causes significant bleeding (more than a few drops of blood), you should try to stop it regardless of whether there is a fracture or not. Significant bleeding from a major artery can cause death within minutes. Controlling bleeding is a top priority over fractures. Apply firm pressure to the wound with a sterile, absorbent bandage (ideally), although clean towels or clothing can be used in an emergency. Press the wound for a few minutes to encourage blood clots at the site of the injury. Tie the bandage around the wound with an elastic bandage or cloth if you can.
- If the bleeding from the injured limb doesn't stop, you may have to apply a tight tourniquet over the wound to temporarily stop the blood flow until medical help arrives. Tourniquets can be made of anything that can be tightly tied- ropes, ropes, cables, rubber hoses, belts, leather ties, scarves, T-shirts, and so on.
- If a large object penetrates the skin, do not remove it. These objects can clog the wound and remove it can actually cause heavy bleeding.
Part 2 of 2: Overcoming Fractures
Step 1. Stop the movement of the broken bone
Once the injured person's body is stabilized, it's time to stop movement of the fractured bone if you anticipate waiting for medical personnel from the emergency department for an hour or more. Stopping movement of the fractured bone can reduce pain and protect it from further injury. weight due to sudden movement. If you haven't had proper training, don't try to realign a broken bone. Trying to straighten a broken bone the wrong way can damage blood vessels and nerves, leading to bleeding and possible paralysis. Note that splints can only be used on limb bones, not bones in the pelvis or trunk.
- The best way to stop movement is to make a simple splint. Place a piece of cardboard or rigid plastic, a stick or stick, a metal rod, or a rolled newspaper/magazine on the sides of the injured area to support the bone. Secure this support with tape, rope, rope, cable, rubber hose, leather belt, tie, scarf, etc.
- When placing a splint on a broken bone, try to allow movement in nearby joints and don't tie too tightly -- let the blood flow freely.
- Putting on a splint may not be necessary if emergency help arrives immediately. In these cases, placing a splint can make things worse if you are not trained.
Step 2. Apply an ice pack to the injury site
When the broken bone is stopped moving, apply a cold compress (ideally ice) as soon as possible while waiting for the ambulance to arrive. Cold therapy has many benefits, including reducing pain, reducing inflammation/swelling, and reducing bleeding by narrowing the arteries. If you don't have ice, try using a frozen gel bag or a bag of vegetables, but be sure to always wrap it in a cheesecloth to avoid ice blisters or frostbite.
- Apply an ice pack for 20 minutes or until the pain in the injured area is completely gone before releasing the compress. Compressing the injury can reduce swelling as long as the pain doesn't get worse.
- When applying ice, be sure to remove the broken bone to reduce swelling and prevent bleeding (if you can).
Step 3. Stay calm and watch for signs of shock
Fractures are very traumatic and painful. Fear, panic, and shock are common reactions, but they have a negative effect on the body, so they must be controlled. In this way, reassure yourself and/or the injured person by reassuring them that help will come soon and the situation will be brought under control. While waiting for help, cover the injured person's body to keep him warm and give him a drink if he feels thirsty. Talk to him to take his mind off the injury.
- Symptoms of shock include: feeling dizzy/dizzy, pale face, cold sweat, rapid breathing, fast heart rate, confusion, and illogical panic.
- If the injured person appears to be in shock, lay him down with his head supported and raise his legs. Cover the body with a blanket, jacket, or tablecloth if these are not available.
- Shock is a dangerous condition because blood and oxygen are diverted from vital organs. This psychological condition if left unchecked can cause organ damage.
Step 4. Consider taking pain medication
If the waiting time for emergency medical personnel is more than an hour (or you anticipate it to be longer), consider taking medication, if available, to control pain and make waiting time more acceptable. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) is the most appropriate pain reliever for fractures and other internal injuries because it doesn't thin the blood and causes heavy bleeding.
- Over-the-counter anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen (Bufect) are useful for relieving pain and inflammation, but they can inhibit blood clotting, making them unsuitable for internal injuries such as fractures.
- In addition, aspirin and ibuprofen should not be given to children, because they have dangerous side effects.
- Check the limb periodically for signs that the splint is too tight and is blocking blood circulation. Loosen the splint if it causes blanching, swelling, or numbness of the skin.
- If blood from the injured area leaks out of the sterile bandage (or any cloth used to stop it), do not remove it. Just add some more gauze/bandage on top.
- Request that the injury be treated by a doctor or trusted medical practitioner as soon as possible.
- Do not move a victim with a back, neck, or head injury unless absolutely necessary. If you suspect a back or neck injury and need to move the victim, keep the back, head, and neck well supported and straight. Do not get twisted or not straight.
- This article should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment. Always ensure that the injured person receives medical attention despite the above steps, as a broken bone can be a life-threatening injury.