3 Ways to Handle Emergency Situations

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3 Ways to Handle Emergency Situations
3 Ways to Handle Emergency Situations

An emergency is a situation that poses an immediate risk to a person's health, safety, property or the environment. It's a good idea to know how to evaluate possible signs of an emergency. That way, you can figure out how to control it. In addition, having an emergency preparedness will be very beneficial if at any time you have to handle an emergency situation.


Method 1 of 3: Evaluating an Emergency

Handle an Emergency Situation Step 1
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 1

Step 1. Stay calm

Emergencies require quick action, but the most important factor in controlling the situation effectively is staying calm. If you find yourself in a confused or anxious state, stop what you are doing and take a deep breath. Keep in mind that in order to remain calm in a stressful situation, you must consciously adjust your behavior. You have to convince yourself that you can handle the situation.

  • You feel panicky in an emergency because your body produces too much cortisol (the stress hormone). Cortisol reaches the brain and slows the activity of the prefrontal cortex, the region of the brain that regulates complex actions.
  • Ignoring physiological responses won't stop you from using your critical thinking skills. You will not react based on emotion, but through rational thinking. Look around and evaluate the situation to see what to do before taking action.
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 8
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 8

Step 2. Seek additional help

In Indonesia, you can call 112 for emergency assistance or call the emergency telephone number in your area. This phone number allows you to communicate with operators who need to know about an emergency and your location.

  • Answer the questions asked by the operator. The operator's job is to prepare a quick and appropriate emergency response by asking you questions.
  • If you are calling from a landline or GPS-equipped cell phone, emergency services may be able to track your location, even if you are unable to speak. Even if the situation doesn't allow you to speak, call emergency services or have someone else find you for help.
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 2
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 2

Step 3. Determine the nature of the emergency

What indicates an emergency? Is this a medical emergency, or a threat to property/building that could injure people? It is important that you pause and evaluate the situation calmly before taking action.

  • Injuries from motor vehicle accidents, smoke inhalation or fire injuries are some of the cases of medical emergencies.
  • In a medical emergency, you may experience sudden physical symptoms, such as bleeding, head trauma, loss of consciousness, chest pain, choking, dizziness or sudden weakness.
  • A strong desire to harm yourself or others can be considered a mental health emergency.
  • Other changes in mental health status may also be considered an emergency, for example sudden changes in behavior or confusion may indicate an emergency if they occur for no reason.
  • Behavioral emergencies can be handled more effectively if you stay calm, watch from a distance, and try to calm the person in critical condition. That way, you can act properly if the situation becomes unstable.
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 3
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 3

Step 4. Know that sudden changes can turn into emergencies

Chemical spills, fires, leaking pipes, power outages, natural disasters such as floods or fires are examples of emergencies that may occur in the workplace. You may be better prepared if you receive warnings about possible emergencies, such as floods, landslides, tsunamis, and so on. However, emergencies are usually unexpected.

  • When evaluating an emergency, keep in mind that the situation may be unstable. Everything can change in an instant.
  • If you get a warning about an emergency, prepare well in advance so you can anticipate it properly.
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 4
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 4

Step 5. Be aware of man-made emergencies

An attack or threat of violence at work or at home is an emergency that requires a quick response. In general, there is no predictable pattern or method for cases like this. These situations tend to be unpredictable and can change quickly.

  • If you are in an emergency like this, try to stay safe. Immediately go to a safe location, or find shelter. Don't fight, unless you have no other choice.
  • You should pay close attention to any warning signs in the workplace, including physical violence (pushing, attacking, etc.). The office should have procedures for dealing with violence, including a telephone number to call to report situations. If you don't know the procedure, try asking a trusted supervisor or colleague.
  • Sincere and open communication between employees and supervisors must be maintained to maintain a safe and healthy work environment.
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 5
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 5

Step 6. Conduct an evaluation to identify immediate threats

For example, if you see someone getting hurt, are you or someone else at risk of getting hurt too? For example, if a person gets stuck in a machine, has it been turned off? If a chemical leak occurs, will other people be affected? Is there someone trapped in the rubble of a building?

  • If a threat cannot be controlled, it will automatically impact your response.
  • Remember that any emergency can change suddenly, and that means you have to constantly evaluate it.
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 6
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 6

Step 7. Stay away from danger

If you, or anyone else, is at risk of injury, leave immediately. If you have an evacuation plan, follow the steps carefully. Go somewhere safe.

  • If it is not possible to leave the scene, find the safest point where you are. For example, hiding under a solid surface (under a table) can protect you if debris falls.
  • If you are near a car accident, make sure you are not blocking traffic. Pull over or leave the highway.
  • Remember that in an emergency, things can change quickly. When you do the evaluation, pay attention to whether there is a volatile or flammable substance. For example, in a car accident, gasoline can catch fire suddenly.
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 7
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 7

Step 8. Help others stay away from dangerous areas

If you can safely help others stay out of dangerous situations, do so. If the conditions are too dangerous to make it impossible to return to the scene of the emergency, hand over the responsibility to rescue workers. They are trained and better equipped to help people in danger.

  • If the injured victim is conscious, you can help him by saying soothing words, even if you can't move him. Ask questions to keep him awake.
  • If the situation is stable, you can continue to accompany the victim.

Method 2 of 3: Handling Emergencies

Handle an Emergency Situation Step 9
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 9

Step 1. Decide if you can do something to help

The most important thing you can do is stay calm and keep the situation under control. Sometimes, you can't do anything, it doesn't matter. Don't feel guilty if you can't help and don't be afraid to admit it.

  • If you see other people feeling sad or scared at the scene, comfort them. Invite them to seek help.
  • It would be better if you provide assistance by accompanying the victim rather than doing something that could cause further damage. If you don't know what to do, just accompany the victim. If possible, take his heart rate, keep a chronology of events, and ask about his medical history. This information may be needed when you talk to the emergency team.
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 10
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 10

Step 2. Think carefully before acting

If you are in an emergency situation, you may think and act in a panic. Instead of taking action right away, take some time to cool off. Take a deep breath before doing anything.

  • Think carefully before acting. If you are in an emergency situation, you may think and act in a panic. Instead of taking action right away, take some time to cool off. Take a deep breath before doing anything.
  • Try to pause whenever you are overwhelmed, panicked, or confused. If you have to stop everything to cool off, that's okay.
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 11
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 11

Step 3. Get the first aid kit

A first aid kit should be equipped to handle many medical emergencies. The equipment that must be in the first aid kit are bandages, gauze, plaster, disinfectant, and other supplies.

  • If you can't find a first aid kit, take a look around and think about what could be used as a substitute.
  • You must have a first aid kit at home, while your workplace is required to provide one by law.
  • The first aid kit must also be equipped with an emergency blanket (space blanket) made of a special material that is lightweight and functions to maintain body heat. This kit is especially important for people who are shivering or shaking as they can help prevent trauma.
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 12
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 12

Step 4. Ask the injured person basic questions

It's important to know the victim's mental state so you can better understand the injury. If he looks confused by the question, or gives the wrong answer, there may be another injury. If you are not sure if the victim is unconscious, touch the shoulder. Yell or ask, “Are you all right?” out loud.

  • Here are some questions you could ask: What is your name? What date is it now? How old are you?
  • If he doesn't respond to your questions, try rubbing his chest or pinching his earlobe to keep him awake. You can also gently touch the eyelids to see if they can open.
  • After determining the basic mental state of the victim, ask if he has any medical complications. Ask if he has a medical alert bracelet or other medical card.
Carry an Injured Person Using Two People Step 2
Carry an Injured Person Using Two People Step 2

Step 5. Do not move the injured person

If the victim has a neck injury, shifting his position can cause spinal damage. Be sure to call emergency services if the victim has a neck injury and is unable to move.

  • If the victim is unable to walk due to a leg injury, you can help him move by holding/supporting his shoulder.
  • If he's afraid to leave a dangerous situation, try to reassure him.
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 13
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 13

Step 6. Use the phone only to ask for help

You should concentrate on the current situation because talking on the phone can be distracting. Also, if you are calling from an older model phone, the emergency services operator may try to call you. So, use the phone if you really need help.

  • If you're not sure if you're really facing an emergency, call 112 and the operator will help determine whether or not he or she should send someone there.
  • Don't try to document the emergency, unless you're sure you're not in danger. Taking a “selfie” or posting a status about your situation on social media can result in other injuries and legal problems.

Method 3 of 3: Prepare

Handle an Emergency Situation Step 14
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 14

Step 1. Make a contingency plan

The best way to respond to an emergency situation is to follow the steps listed on an emergency plan, whether at home or at work. Some people may be appointed as emergency leaders and receive special training. In the event of an emergency, you can save time and energy by following an emergency plan and a designated leader, even if you disagree with them.

  • The contingency plan should include a meeting place where you will meet after you have successfully evacuated your home or building.
  • Keep emergency phone numbers near your phone or in your cell phone.
  • Important medical data should be stored in your phone or wallet.
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 15
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 15

Step 2. Know the address you are in

You need to know where you are so the operator can send an officer there. It may be easier to memorize your home address, but remembering your workplace address is also important. Make it a habit to check the address of the location you visit.

  • If you don't know the full address where you are, just state the name of the street you are on and the nearest intersection or landmark.
  • If you have a cell phone equipped with GPS, use this feature to find the address where you are. However, in order to do so you will be forced to waste a few very valuable minutes in an emergency situation.
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 16
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 16

Step 3. Find the nearest exit

Don't forget to know where the exit is when you're somewhere, whether it's your home, office, or commercial location. Find at least 2 exits, in case one of them is locked. In offices or public buildings, exit/emergency doors are usually clearly marked.

  • Choose two locations where you can reunite with family or other coworkers. One of the gathering locations should be outside the home or workplace. Other locations are outside the area to anticipate if the environment becomes unsafe.
  • By law, an exit dedicated as an emergency exit must be physically accessible.
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 17
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 17

Step 4. Take a course to provide first aid

Having a first aid bag is useless if you don't know how to use it. Getting practice in applying bandages, compresses, tourniquets, and other equipment will help you in an emergency. First aid courses are offered everywhere. So, it is not difficult to find it in the area where you live.

  • Several courses are also available on the internet.
  • First aid courses can be targeted to specific age groups. If you have children, or would like to have the skills to help children in an emergency, take a special first aid course that focuses on helping children in emergency situations. If your work is related to children, you should take this training.
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 18
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 18

Step 5. Consider taking CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) training in addition to the first-aid course

Having CPR skills can save the life of someone having a heart attack. If you've never had CPR training, you can still apply pressure to the chest of a person suspected of having a heart attack.

  • Chest compressions are hard pressure that is applied rapidly to the rib cage. The compression rate is 100 compressions per minute, or more than 1 compression per second.
  • PMI provides CPR training for children. If you have children, attend CPR training for children so that you are prepared for an emergency. If your work is related to children, you should take this training.
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 19
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 19

Step 6. Consider the risks associated with chemicals in your home

In the event of an emergency at work, you should be able to access the Material Safety Data Sheets (LDKB) for all chemicals used. The most effective way to prepare for an emergency is to have a list of chemicals used at home or at work, in addition to necessary first aid measures.

  • The workplace should have a special place to wash your eyes if you are in frequent contact with hazardous chemicals.
  • You should be prepared to provide the emergency response team with relevant chemical-related information.
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 20
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 20

Step 7. Put a list of emergency numbers near the phone

Include 112 and any important medical phone numbers, including the phone numbers of family members to call. You should also include the telephone numbers of the poison control center, ambulance service, and family doctor as well as the contact numbers of neighbors, close friends or relatives, and the telephone number of the office.

  • All family members, including children, should be able to access this list in an emergency.
  • For children, seniors or people with disabilities, consider preparing a text to help them remember what to say on the phone in case of an emergency. You can even train them to say the words and teach them the proper actions in various emergencies.
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 21
Handle an Emergency Situation Step 21

Step 8. Put on a medical bracelet or necklace

If you have a chronic illness that the medical response team should be aware of, such as diabetes, certain allergies, epilepsy or seizures, and other health problems, a medical bracelet/necklace/label can provide this information if you are unable to do so.

  • Most medical personnel check the victim's wrist for the presence of a medical bracelet/label. The second place that is usually also checked is the victim's neck to anticipate if the victim is wearing a medical necklace.
  • People with certain behavioral disorders, such as Tourette's syndrome, autism, dementia, and so on, may be able to wear a medical badge to help the emergency response team better understand their behavior.


  • Make sure all family members or all employees at work know where the first aid kit is.
  • Keep a first aid kit in the car.
  • You may want to consider emergency numbers outside your area in case all the telephone lines in your area are busy.


  • Do not place a pillow under the head of a person who has fainted as this can cause damage to the spine.
  • Never try to move a victim with a neck injury.
  • Do not cut off the conversation with the emergency services operator until he or she allows it.
  • Never give food or drink to an unconscious victim.
  • Do not leave the door in the workplace open. The emergency door must be opened from the inside only to prevent the entry of irresponsible parties.

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