Cells are one of the most basic building blocks of life. All organisms must have cells, both unicellular and multicellular. Animal cells differ from plant cells in several ways, including the absence of vacuoles, chloroplasts, and cell walls. You can easily draw an animal cell once you understand its general shape and the various cell organelles it contains.
Part 1 of 2: Drawing Cell Membrane and Cell Nucleus
Step 1. Make a simple circle or oval for the cell membrane
Animal cell membranes are not perfectly circular. You can make incomplete circles or ovals. The important thing is that there are no sharp edges. Also understand that the membrane is not a solid cell wall like plant cells. The cell membrane allows molecules to enter and leave the animal cell.
Make a circle large enough to hold all the organelles you want to draw in it
Step 2. Draw a picture of a pinocytic vesicle
The detailed animal cell model likely also displays pinocytic vesicles on the cell membrane. The shape is like a small circle. Pinocytic vesicles push toward the outside of the cell membrane without breaking it.
In pinocytosis, the cell membrane surrounds the extracellular fluid (which is outside the cell). Furthermore, the fluid will be pushed into the cells to be digested or absorbed. This is the reason the vesicles are drawn in the form of spheres enclosed by a membrane
Step 3. Draw two circles as the cell nucleus
The cell nucleus or nucleus is one of the larger cell structures. Create the shape of the nucleus by drawing two circles-a large circle measuring 10% of cells and a slightly smaller cell inside.
- The nucleus of animal cells has pores called nuclear pores. To indicate the presence of a nuclear pore, erase three or four small sections of each circle. Then connect the outer line to the inner line. The end result will resemble a curved cylinder that does not touch.
- The outer shell of the nuclear membrane is also known as the nuclear envelope. To create a very detailed model of the cell, make several dots outside the nuclear membrane to represent ribosomes attached to the membrane.
Step 4. Draw a smaller, thicker circle for the cell nucleus
The nucleolus is located in the center of the cell nucleus and produces ribosomal subunits that combine at specific locations in the cell. Draw a small thick circle to show the nucleolus.
Step 5. Draw squiggly lines to indicate the chromatin material
Most of the interior of the remaining nucleus should look like a large twisting line. These dotted lines indicate chromatin material such as DNA and proteins.
Part 2 of 2: Drawing Other Cell Organelles
Step 1. Draw an oval bar to show the mitochondria
Mitochondria are the powerhouses for the cell. Draw a picture of the mitochondria by drawing two or three large bar ovals inside the cell, but outside the cell nucleus. Each (single) mitochondrion must have a closed shape with many squiggly lines. These shapes represent mitochondrial cristae or folds in the membrane of the organelle that provide a larger surface area for carrying out various processes.
Leave a gap between the oval outer membrane and the inner membrane
Step 2. Draw a finger-like shape to show the endoplasmic reticulum
Starting at one of the edges of the nuclear membrane, make a large shape that goes out of the membrane with several finger-like shapes pointing to each side before reconnecting to the nucleus. This whole form is referred to as the endoplasmic reticulum. The shape of the endoplasmic reticulum is quite large because its size can reach 10% of the total cell volume.
Animal cells have both smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. To create a rough endoplasmic reticulum, make dots on the outer edge of the radius shape on one side of the endoplasmic reticulum. These dots indicate the ribosomes
Step 3. Create a set of barbell-like shapes to show the Golgi body
To draw the Golgi body (or Golgi apparatus), draw three shapes that resemble a barbell, namely a cylinder in the middle and rounded at the ends. The farther from the nucleus and closer to the cell membrane, the larger the barbell image should be.
- The function of the Golgi apparatus is to package and deliver complex molecules to all parts of the cell and out of the cell. This process is carried out through pre-drawn vesicles around the Golgi body in the form of small circles.
- Write the G on the Golgi with a capital letter because it indicates the biologist who discovered it.
Step 4. Make two small triangles with right angles to show the centrioles
Centrioles help in the process of cell division. These organelles are close to, but separate from the cell nucleus. Draw a centriole with two small, perpendicular triangles near the nucleus of the cell.
Centrioles are paired organelles. Therefore, the two triangles are drawn together
Step 5. Create another small circle for the lysosomes
Lysosomes serve as a receptacle for cell debris that disassembles material that is not needed for reuse. Draw an image of a lysosome with a small circle at the edge of the cell. Add lots of dots inside the lysosomes to show the digestive enzymes inside, also known as hydrolytic enzymes.
Place the lysosomes close to the Golgi body as these organelles often protrude from the Golgi bodies
Step 6. To display the ribosomes, add dots inside the cell, but outside the other organelles
Ribosomes also float around the cytosol, which is a cellular fluid that is inside the membrane but outside all other organelles. Show more ribosomes in the cytosol by making a few more dots in the cell.
- If your drawing is colored regularly, the ribosomes inside the cell that are attached to the cell's nuclear membrane, and attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum, have the same color.
- Cytosol and cytoplasm are often used interchangeably for fluid within cells. The fluid inside the nucleus is referred to as the nucleoplasm.
- Most teachers will ask you to label each structure on a test or assignment. Get in the habit of labeling each cell structure and organelle.
- If you want to draw a specific cell, such as an amoeba or paramecium, study it first. Usually there are other structures such as flagella, cilia, pseudo podium, and so on.
- If you are creating a 3D model, use paper mache.