When dealing with an emergency situation such as if someone has fainted or is unconscious, you should check to see if the person needs CPR. CPR is a life-saving technique, but should only be given if a person really needs it. To determine if someone needs this procedure, you should always check the victim's airway, breathing, and blood circulation before proceeding.
Part 1 of 4: Checking Victim Response
Step 1. Observe the situation
When someone faints in front of you, pay attention to your surroundings and find ways to approach them without endangering yourself. You should also see if there is enough space for you to move around and provide assistance. If the victim is in a dangerous situation (such as in the middle of a highway), try to move him to a safe location before giving help. However, don't put yourself in danger. Rushing to give help has the potential to injure yourself. In addition to not helping the victim, if you are injured, rescue workers have to provide assistance to more people.
Use caution if the victim has a potential neck or spinal injury, such as if he or she falls from a height or is involved in a motor vehicle accident that shows signs of severe trauma. Treatment of the spine of all persons who have fallen from a height or been in a motor vehicle accident must be carried out with extreme care
Step 2. Talk to the victim
One of the best ways to check the victim's response is to talk to them. Ask questions like, "What's your name?", "Are you okay?", and "Can you hear my voice?". This question can awaken the victim and make him respond. You can also tap the victim's shoulder or arm to check for response.
If this doesn't work, try shouting once or twice to wake the victim. Shout out words like, "Hi!" or "Hello!" and see if the victim responds
Step 3. Wipe the victim's ribs
Rubbing the victim's ribs can help you determine if the victim is truly unresponsive. You don't need to give CPR to a victim who just isn't responding but is still breathing and has good blood circulation. Make a fist and rub your knuckle firmly against the victim's breastbone.
- You can also do a trap squeeze by grasping the victim's shoulder muscles with your fingers, then pressing them into the collarbone cavity. Bend down while doing this step, and listen for sounds or signs of breathing.
- Everyone who is unconscious, but still breathing should be awakened by the pain.
- Observe the victim's reaction, if any, to convey to rescue workers when they arrive.
Part 2 of 4: Checking the Breath
Step 1. Position the victim's body
Before checking the victim's airway, you must position the body properly. If there is a blockage in or around the victim's mouth (blood, vomit, etc.), put on gloves and remove the blockage to open the victim's airway before lying down. Lay the victim in a supine position. Look for a flat surface so that the victim's body is straight and easy to help. Make sure the victim's hands are on either side of her body, and that her back and legs are straight.
Gently press the victim's shoulder for a moment. This pressure will widen the trachea and help lift the victim's jaw
Step 2. Raise the victim's head
To open the victim's airway lying on the ground, the airway and head must be in the correct position. Place one hand behind the victim's head, and the other under the victim's chin. Lift the victim's head up.
The victim's chin should be slightly raised as if he were sniffing
Step 3. Remove the foreign body from the victim's airway
The victim's airway may be blocked by something. This blockage can be caused by a foreign object, the tongue itself, or vomit or other body fluids. If the victim's airway is blocked with vomit or other expelled object, immediately remove it from the victim's mouth by inserting two or three of your fingers into it. You can move the victim's head to the side for a moment to help remove the blockage.
- Try not to push the blockage deeper into the trachea by taking only what you can see in the victim's mouth. Lift the blockage from the victim's mouth by clamping it, and do not dig it.
- If the victim's tongue is blocking the airway, try the jaw thrust technique. Crouch over the victim's head, looking down at his toes. Hold the victim's jaw firmly with both hands, then lift it up without moving the head. This technique will help lower the victim's tongue to the base of the jaw, and no longer block the airway.
Part 3 of 4: Checking Breathing
Step 1. Observe for signs of breathing
There are several signs of breathing that can be clearly observed in the victim. Observe the expansion and contraction of the victim's chest as he inhales oxygen into his lungs. Also observe changes in the victim's nose when he inhales, or opening and closing the victim's mouth when he inhales and exhales.
- If the victim's chest is not distended, try shifting the airway slightly in both directions. You may not have positioned the airway properly to open it.
- If the victim appears to be gasping for breath or is unable to breathe properly, treat this as a condition where the victim is not breathing and check his blood circulation.
Step 2. Check the victim's breathing
You can check the victim's breathing by feeling or hearing his voice. Place your hand near the victim's nose and mouth to feel the breath flow. If you can't feel it, bend down and bring your head to the victim's mouth. Feel the breath on your cheek and also listen for the sound of inhaling or exhaling.
If you can hear normal breath sounds, you don't need to give CPR. However, you should still call 118 if the victim is also unconscious
Step 3. Tilt the victim if he starts to breathe
Opening the airway may be enough to help the victim breathe again. If so, tilt the victim's body to reduce the pressure on the chest. This step will make it easier for the victim to breathe.
Part 4 of 4: Checking Blood Circulation
Step 1. Feel the blood circulation
After making sure that the victim is not breathing, you should check to see if the blood is still flowing. With the victim's chin raised, place your index and middle fingers in the hollow of his neck, just below the jaw, to the left or right of the voice box or Adam's apple. Slide your two fingers into the hollow there. Therein lies the victim's carotid artery which should be throbbing loudly if the blood was still flowing smoothly.
If the victim's pulse is weak, or can't be felt, it means he or she is in danger. Seek medical help
Step 2. Call 118
If the victim is not breathing or has no pulse, you should call 118. Emergency personnel who arrive will help the victim and find the cause of the victim's unconsciousness. If you are alone, call 118 first, then accompany the victim.
If someone else is there, ask them to call 118 while you are with the victim
Step 3. Give CPR
If the victim is not breathing, and the pulse is weak or absent, you should administer CPR. This action will make the blood in the victim's body return to flow and make the lungs work again so that it helps save the victim's life while waiting for help to arrive. CPR is a rescue technique that can help prolong a victim's life until medical help can address the cause of the condition.
- Be sure to follow the American Heart Associations CPR guidelines when administering it to a victim. Consider taking a CPR training course to master proper rescue techniques.
- There are different methods of CPR for children and adults.